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    • 论定语从句中引导词的应用
    • 发布时间:2016年01月04日       浏览次数: 3281 次
    • 作者:韩小斌

          近年来,由于各省的高考英语改革在深入的进行,海南省也加入了高考英语改革的行列,从2014年起,不再考单项选择题,而该考语法填空题。 就是把原先15题单项选择题,改成了高考改错题,分值不变,数量有变化,单项选择题由15题改成10题语法填空题,其中包括不给词3题,给题7题,其中就含有考核宾语从句的引导词为不给词的内容, 因此完全掌握定语从句的引导词变得非常的重要,为了让学生更加容易掌握定语从句的引导词,特写此论文。

          首先,我们先来学习什么是定语从句。定语从句就是用来修饰名词或代词的句子,起到定语的作用,所以叫做定语从句。被修饰的词叫先行词。定语从句不同于单词作定语的情况,它需要放在被修饰的词(即先行词)之后。定语从句一般由关系代词来引导。关系代词必须放在定语从句之首。

          先行词指被定语从句修饰的名词或代词。一般先行词出现在定语从句的前面。

         其次,学习定语从句的分类。定语从句分限定性定语从句和非限定性定语从句。1.限定性定语从句意义:限定性定语从句对被修饰的先行词有限定制约作用,使该词的含义更具体,更明确。限制性定语从句不能被省略,否则句意就不完整。2.非限性定语从句意义:非限制性定语从句起补充说明作用,缺少也不会影响全句的理解。在非限制性定语从句的前面往往有逗号隔开。

         再次,学习定语从句的全部引导词。定语从句的引导词有:1.关系代词whowhomwhosewhichthatas;关系副词whenwherewhy

         最后,学习各个引导词在实践中的应用。为了让学生更好地理解和应用这些引导词,先认识它们在在从句中充当什么句子成分。  

       

      1.看看在定语从句中缺什么句子成份。定语从句中引导词的选用主要看先行词在定语从句中作什么成分或者是定语从句中缺什么句子成分。

      (1)定语从句中缺主语,修饰人时用who that

      修饰物时用which that引导。如:

            Is this the factory which that makes clothes

            The woman who that visited our school is from America

      (2)从句中缺宾语,修饰人时用whom that或省略引导词;

      修饰物时用which that或省略引导词。如:

            Gone is the days which that we spent together in the village

            He is the boy whom that I think to be worthy of our praise

         (3)从句中缺时间状语,用when或介词+which引导。如:

            The day finally came when on which I was given a job

            We'll put off the outing until next weekwhen we won't be so busy

         (4)从句中缺地点状语,用where或介词+which引导。如:

            Put the letter on the desk whereon which he can easily find it

         (5)从句中缺原因状语或先行词是 reason时,引导词用why /for which 。如:

            This is the reason why for which he didn't come to the meeting

         (6)从句中缺定语,人和物都用 whose引导。当定语 如:

            A boy whose parents are dead is called an orphan

            Please pass me the book whose cover is black

         (7)当先行词是way时,其定语从句的引导词用in which that。如:

            The way in which that he looks at problems is wrong

      2.定语从句的一些特殊用法.

      (1) 必须用that的情况:

      先行词被序数词、形容词的最高级修饰时,

      A. This is the first job that I have taken up.

      B. This is the most interesting novel that I have ever read.

      先行词是不定代词,something somebody nothing anything all little much 时,

      There is nothing that I want to tell you.

      先行词被all/ any/ every/ each/ few /little/ no/ some/ much/ only/ none/

      both/ either/ neither 等修饰时,   如:I have read all the books that you lent me.

      先行词被the only, the last, the very…修饰时如:Hers is the only method we can use.

      先行词又有人又有物时,

       They talked about things and persons that they know in the school.

      主句以who which开头时,

      Who is the old man that speak to you just now ?

      (2)修饰物时只用which不用that的情况

      引导非限制性定语从句时。例如:

      Bamboo is hollow, which makes it light.竹子是空心的,这使得他很轻。

      当关系词前有介词时。例如:

      This is the room in which I once lived.这就是我曾经住过的地方。

      在一个句子中有两个定语从句,其中一个定语从句的关系代词用了that, 另一个宜用which。例如:

      Let me show you the novel that I borrowed from the library which was newly open to us.我来给你看我从新开的图书馆里借来的那本小说。

      当关系代词后面有插入语时。例如:

      Here is the English sentences which, as I have told you, will help improve your English.这就是我跟你说过的会有助于你学好英语的英语句子。

      先行词为that时。例如:

      The clock is that which can tell us the time.钟是报时的装置。

      (3)修饰人时只用who不用that的情况

      先行词为one, ones, anyone, those指代人时。如:

      The person I want to learn from is one who studies hard and works well.我最羡慕的是学习勤奋,工作出色的人。

      There be结构中,修饰主语的定语从句宜用who关系代词指代人。例如:

      There’s a gentleman who wants to see you.有位先生想见你。

      当先行词有较长的后置定语时。例如:

      I met a foreigner in the park yesterday afternoon

      who could speak Chinese very well.

      昨天下午我在公园里遇到一位中文讲得非常好的外国人。

      一个句子中带有两个定语从句,其中一个定语从句的关系代词是that, 另一个宜用who以避免重复。例如:

      The student that was praised at yesterday’s meeting is the monitor who is very modest and works very hard.受到校长表扬的学生是位谦虚好学的班长。

      (4)先行词为the reason时,分析后面的定语从句,如果定语从句缺乏主语或者宾语或者表语,先行词用关系代词that/which,做宾语可以省略;如果从句完整,不缺主语或者宾语或者表语,先行词用关系副词why.

      例如: I don't believe the reason ______ you give me.

                I don't know the reason ________ he is late.

      分析:例1定语从句是______ you give me give 为及物动词,缺宾语,所以要填关系代词that/which/省略;

      2定语从句为________ he is late,从句完整,填关系副词why.

      掌握一个句型:the reason why~~~~ is that~~~~~

      例如:The reason why he is late is that he got up late.

      因为why he is late是定语从句, that he got up late是表语从句。

      (5)引导词是as

       引导词as可引导限制性定语从句,也可引导非限制性定语从句。

      A.在固定词组the same...assuch...as 如:

        She is not such a fool as she looks

        I've bought the same cap as he is wearing

      B.当先行词是整个主句时,可用 as which引导非限制性定语从句。

      引导词aswhich的区别在于:

      as引导的非限制性定语从句可放于主句前、主句中、主句后,

      which引导的非限制性定语从句一般放于主句后或句中。

      as常与从句中的knowsee hearexpect等动词连用,也常用于

      as often happensas is often the case(常有的事)等句子中;

      which一般不用于以上情况。

        as正如的含义,which没有此含义。如:

           (A). As is well knownShanghai is a big city

           (B). Allroads were floodedwhich made our journey more difficult

      (6) one of引导词结构:

        在“one of+复数名词+定语从句结构中,从句的谓语动词应与复数名词保持一致;当one前有the only修饰时,从句的谓语动词应与the only one保持一致。如: He was one of the students who were late for class

              He was the only one of the students who was late for class

      (7)引导词前有介词或短语介词时,修饰人只能用 whom,修饰物只能用which引导。如: My glasseswithout which I was like a blind manfell and broke

           The manby whom the wolf was shotis called Jay Han.

      3.定语从句在高考中的应用和考法:

         由于海南高考的语法填空题从2014年才开始试用,基本上还没有考到定语从句的引导词,但是广东省的高考从2007年就开始考语法填空题,因此在此处只好引用广东省的高考题作为例题。在改错题中有所体现,海南省的高考题也有所体现,具体看一下例题:

      (1)2013广东高考真题

      Nick’s guests,  Who   had heard their conversation, asked why they should not buy salt more cheaply if they could. Nick replied, “The only reason a man would sell salt

       

      (2) 2012广东高考真题

      Of course whenever they turned to look at him, they had to look at Mary,  which         made her feel like a star .

      (3) 2011广东高考真题

      Behind him were other people to  whom   he was trying to talk, but after some minutes, they walked away and sat near me, looking annoyed.

      (4) 2010广东高考真题

      He filled his leather container so that he could bring some back to an elder  who  had been his teacher.

      (5) 2009广东高考真题

      Jane paused in front of a counter  where  some attractive ties were on display.

      (6) 2007广东高考真题

      Cursing my misfortune, I was wondering where I was going to spend the night when I realized that the villagers who had gathered around me were arguing as to  who  should have the honor of receiving me.

      (7)改错题:2013年海南高考真题

      Having tea in the late afternoon provides a bridge between lunch and dinner, that might not be served until 8 o’clock at night.  (that 要改为which,非限定性定语从句不能用that)

      (8)定语从句的相关练习

      1.The place _______interested me most was the Children's Palace.

      A. Which   B. where  C. what     D. in which

      2.Do you know the man_____? A. whom I spoke B. to who spoke C. I spoke to D. that I spoke

      3.This is the hotel _______last month.   A. which they stayed      B. at that they stayed 

      C. where they stayed at    D. where they stayed

      4.Do you know the year ______the Chinese Communist Party was founded?

      A. which    B. that   C. when     D. on which

      5.That is the day ______I'll never forget. A. which B. on which C. in which D. when

      6.The factory _____we'll visit next week is not far from here.

      A. where   B. to which   C. which   D. in which

      7.Great changes have taken place since then in the factory _______we are working.

      A. where   B. that    C. which    D. there

      8.This is one of the best films_______. A. that have been shown this year  B. that have shown

      C. that has been shown this year  D. that you talked

      9.Can you lend me the book ______the other day?

      A. about which you talked  B. which you talked C. about that you talked D. that you talked

      10.The pen ______he is writing is mine. A. with which B. in which C. on which D. by which

       

          以上的学习内容,希望能够帮助到学生在学习定语从句时,更好地理解和在考试中考试应有

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